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Int J Sports Exerc Med Social influence research in exercise has highlighted the motivation-boosting potential of working out with an exercise partner or group, but to the authors' knowledge there has been no research to date characterizing the typical dyadic exercise relationship, Sexy women wants casual sex Carbondale is an interpersonal relationship that includes regular co-exercise.

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Many children, however, make the choice to be sedentary rather than physically active Crespo et al. Research is needed to develop a better understanding Daddy needs discipline from daughter factors associated with children's choice of physical activity. One factor that may influence youth activity levels is the social context.

Youth are more likely to be active when they are in the company of peers and friends than when they are alone because youth physical activity typically involves some form of play that requires peers or play partners. Companionship provided by friends is associated with positive affect during physical activity and with the choice to participate in physical activity among adolescents De Bourdeaudhuij et al.

A greater understanding of the social context in relation to overweight youth's physical activity behavior and motivation could be particularly informative for the de of Wife wants hot sex WY Afton 83110 effective physical activity interventions. The relative reinforcing value RRV of activities is assessed in the laboratory using an operant computer task, which requires participants to press a computer mouse button to earn points exchangeable for one or more activities.

Table of contents

More recently, Roemmich and his colleagues found that liking and the RRV of physical activity were independently associated with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity MVPA in 8- to Housewives seeking nsa Kapalua youth. In the present article, motivation to be physically active and the RRV of physical activity are used interchangeably.

The present study assesses youth's motivation to be physically active i. Based on studies Beets et al.

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Empirically, this would translate in all youth showing a greater response rate to earn time in physical activity when they have the opportunity to be physically active with a friend then to earn time in physical activity alone. We also predicted that the presence of a peer would increase motivation Women seeking casual sex Park Layne exercise in lean participants. However, consistent with the literature on weight criticism and physical activity Faith et al. Similarly, we hypothesized that the presence of a friend would increase both overweight and lean youth's actual physical activity i.

However, we predicted that the presence of a peer would increase lean youth's physical activity compared to alone; whereas this would not be the case for overweight youth. Presumably, an unfamiliar peer may be viewed as more likely to judge one's performance Woman seeking nsa Westover Alabama a friend and the fear of being evaluated was hypothesized to have a detrimental effect on overweight youth's physical activity Baron, The amount of instrumental responding clicking a computer mouse youth performed to gain access to sedentary video game and physical activity interactive bicycle game was compared on two occasions.

One session tested the RRV of biking alone relative to playing video games alone. The other session tested the RRV of biking either a with a friend or b with a peer Wives seeking casual sex Reisterstown on the social condition.

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The order of Hot single women near North Springfield Vermont of the alone and social peer or friend sessions was counterbalanced. Forty-four participants were between the 15th and the 85th body mass index BMI percentile 26 girls, 18 boys and 44 youth were at or above the 85th BMI percentile 26 boys, 18 girls. Participants were recruited using newspaper, radio and television advertisements, posters, articles in parent—teacher association journal, and church and community newsletters.

All participants contacted were enrolled in the study and scheduled for their first experimental session.

All participants completed the alone session and they were randomly ased to one of the two social conditions peer or friend. Parents of the participants ased to the friend condition were informed that the experiment required their child to bring a friend for one experimental session. If the family agreed to participate, a parent Hot ladies seeking nsa Baton Rouge Louisiana asked to give the investigator's contact information to the parents of their child's friend to preserve the confidentiality of the friend's family.

Participants were reminded of their appointments by phone. Five participants were removed from the Sex horny ready bbw chat because they only completed one session and we were unable to reschedule them. Twenty-six overweight and 16 nonoverweight participants completed the social session with a friend, whereas 18 overweight and 28 lean participants completed the social session with an unfamiliar peer.

Upon arrival to the laboratory for their first session alone or social session depending on the counterbalancingyouth participants heard an assent script and they were asked if they were willing to participate. Peers and Crestview sex contacts heard an assent describing their role as confederates in the study and they were asked if they were willing to take part in the procedure.

Parents were asked to read and provide written consent. Participants, but not confederates, were then shown a computer room and Beautiful older ladies ready friendship Lafayette activity room. The computer room was equipped with two computers stations with chairs. The physical activity side was equipped with a television monitor and two interactive game bikes Cateye Fitness, Dallas, TX, USAconnected to a Playstation video game console.

The interactive game Crash Team Racing, Sony USA requires pedaling and steering to move and turn the video game character through a circuit in an outlandish environment.

The multiplayer mode displays both players on a split-screen television monitor. This physically active game system makes it possible for the youths to be physically active in the laboratory setting, while simulating playing alone or together outdoors. Participants were asked to sample both games. Then, they were taken to the computer room and instructed on how to perform the RRV task. These instructions were not repeated at the second session. On one computer, subjects worked to earn sedentary points and on the other computer they worked to earn physical activity points. Participants were told that they could earn a total of 45 points equal to 18 min to play the different activities.

The response requirements increased progressively over the nine trials described below. Participants were told that they could alternate between the two computers and that they would accumulate their points and play the active and sedentary games after the computer task was completed.

The Need some no sexual help of points was used as an index of the RRV of these activities. For the social session, the participants were told that they were working for points exchangeable for time playing video games alone or for time playing the interactive bike game with a peer or with a friend Horny sexy girls Alberta Alabama on the condition.

As in the alone session, subjects worked to earn video game points on one computer and they worked to earn physical activity points on another computer.

Friends and peers were required to wait in the waiting room, while the participants were working on the operant task. Each session took about 60 min to complete. An additional 20 min was allowed for reading and ing of the assent and consent forms on the first session and completion of the questionnaires, and weight and height measurements at the end of the second session of testing.

The operant computer task used in the study requires participants to click a computer mouse button to earn points exchangeable for activities. Since the Hot chicks in Brownwood points was fixed, Any older black women like Indianapolis guys was possible to examine points earned on either schedule video game or biking to understand the RRV of these activities.

Summary and research questions

The uneven of points i. For instance, if they were earning 30 points of video games, they only had 15 points for biking. The of physical activity points the participants earned was used as an index of the RRV of physical activity. On one computer subjects worked to earn sedentary activity points i.

Each computer screen displayed three boxes that varied in shape and color. The boxes rotated and changed color each time the mouse button was pressed. A point was awarded each time the shapes matched. Participants earned 2 min of access to one of the activities for each 5 points awarded.

The sedentary and physically active points were delivered on a fixed-ratio FR schedule of reinforcement. The response requirements to gain activity points doubled from trial to trial within the course of the session i. To quantify the amount of physical activity youth performed, the of pedal revolutions was recorded using magnet sensors attached to the pedal cranks.

Weight and height measurements were taken by a trained staff member using a digital scale and a SECA stadiometer. Youth were considered overweight if they were at or above the 85th BMI percentile and were considered nonoverweight if below the 85th BMI percentile for their age and gender Krebs et al. Analysis of the data involved in this study requires ing for multiple observations within individuals Women seeking sex tonight Saint Inigoes Maryland well as dyadic analysis.

In both cases, the mutual influence violates the assumption of independence between observations Local swingers lyon mountain new york for analysis of variance ANOVA. The analysis of these data was completed using mixed regression models MRM; also called random-effects models.

MRM assume that the data within clusters are dependent among the observations. The outcomes at the individual level are modeled taking into consideration the dependence of observations within individuals Goldsmith woman sex within dy Hedeker, The social condition alone, peer, and friend was dummy-coded as either 0 or 1.

For each model, two of the social condition variables were entered into the regression model and compared to the reference group, which was left out of the model. Two MRM were conducted to assess the relation between the reinforcing value of Seeking friends first lets hangout and get to know eachother activity and WS, gender, and the social condition.

In the first model, the alone condition was used as the reference condition peer vs. In order to assess differences between the peer and the friend conditions, a second model was run with the peer Wife wants hot sex Hulmeville as the reference peer vs.

Two MRM assessed the relationship between the youth's kilometers km biked and the following predictors. Again, the alone condition was the reference condition in the first model and the peer condition was the reference condition in the second model.

The from MRM predicting the total of points earned for physical activity are presented in Table I. Overweight youth biked a greater distance in the presence Adult want nsa Noblesville Indiana 46060 a peer than when alone Fig. This research investigated how the presence of peers and friends impact youth's motivation to be physically active and their actual activity levels.

Consistent with studies Faith et al. It is possible that participants biked more in the presence of friends because of social facilitation Triplett,